Prof. UMK dr hab. Marta BARANOWSKA
Mikołaj Kopernik University in Toruń
English abstract: The research objective of the article is to present Rudolf Steiner’s concept of threefold society, as well as to attempt to indicate whether the ideas he raised have a place in the contemporary discourse in social and political philosophy. The research questions to be asked in this context are: is it possible to include Steiner’s views in a specific ideology? Did he consider it possible to realize the ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity in social life? How did he perceive the relationship between the individual and the community? Achieving the research goal requires analysing and interpreting Steiner’s writings and analysing the scientific literature devoted to this issue. First of all, he believed that the three ideas: liberty, equality, fraternity, are impossible to implement when the social organism is treated as an integral whole. The original solution to this problem was to suggest dividing the social organism into three parts. Each part would implement one of these ideas. The spiritual sphere would be based on freedom from influence of the state and the economy, while the economic sphere would be based on brotherhood and not on the liberal egoistic desire to get rich or on the socialist pursuit of equality. In this context, he also presented a concept that resembles basic income, an idea raised more and more often in contemporary social philosophy. Finally, the political sphere would be based on democratic equality. Steiner emphasized that he was not creating a new ideology because a permanent social order would never be possible. He also introduced an original solution to social philosophy, pointing out that life is not an integral whole and has different aspects. Different priorities can be considered in each of them, which will result in an optimal solution to the individual-community paradox.
Keywords: Rudolf Steiner, threefold social order, anthroposophy, liberty, social philosophy, unconditional basic income, law
Published: Number 1(34)/2023, pp.5-17
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